Academic Standard

Tennessee Diploma Project
English Language Arts
Grade range: 
9 to 12
Writing is a way of sharing language in a visual or tactile form. Throughout the world writing systems have been developed independently using a variety of symbols to represent speech, punctuation, and numbers. All of the writing systems utilize visible representations except the Braille system used for the visually impaired. Writing is one of the most commanding communication tools.Conceptual StrandThe ability to write clearly and coherently to a specific topic is vital to effective communication. Authors write for a variety of purposes and to a variety of audiences.Guiding QuestionIn what ways does good writing contribute to effective communication in a variety of purposes and to a variety of audiences?
Elements within this Standard
Course Level Expectation
Write in a variety of modes for different purposes and audiences.
Employ various prewriting strategies.
Organize ideas into an essay with a thesis statement in the introduction, well-constructed paragraphs, a conclusion, and transition sentences that connect
Revise documents to develop or support ideas more clearly, address potential objections, ensure effective transitions between paragraphs, and correct errors in
Check For Understanding
Write in a variety of modes (e.g., a summary; an explanation; a description; a creative expression; a literary analysis, informational, research, or
Create sophisticated, complex work-related texts (e.g., instructions, directions, letters, bios, memos, e-mails, proposals, project plans, work orders, reports)
Develop topics that address unfamiliar and abstract concepts removed from students personal experiences and that require in-depth analysis.
Use a variety of strategies when appropriate (e.g., comparisons, anecdotes, detailed descriptions) to provide facts, details, reasons, and examples that support
Develop and elaborate on ideas as appropriate to audience and anticipate and respond to readers potential questions and counterarguments.
Include relevant, specific, and compelling details.
Employ organizational structures and support, and incorporate multiple patterns when appropriate (e.g., combine question-answer with comparison-contrast and
Create text features (e.g., headings subheadings, formatting) as appropriate to signal important points.
Use transitions to signal organizational patterns and to connect and contrast ideas.
Use precise language appropriate to audience and purpose (e.g., connotative words in essays, exact terminology in technical writing).
Use compelling verbs and a variety of figurative language (e.g., irony, caricature, symbols, allusions) to address the needs of audience and purpose.
Use clear sentence structure in developing increasingly complex syntax (e.g., combining short sentences, varying sentence beginnings, using a variety of
Employ grammar, usage, and mechanics as rhetorical tools, using incorrect structures as appropriate for effect (e.g., utilize short sentences or fragments for
When other sources are used or referenced (e.g., in research, informational, or literary essays), adhere to the list below. Skillfully acknowledge source
Generate notes while collecting information.
Create a detailed outline based on research, note-taking, or some other method of generating content.
Edit writing for mechanics (e.g., punctuation, capitalization), spelling, grammar (e.g., pronoun-antecedent relationship, use of modifying phrases), style
Based on readers comments, revise papers to focus on the thesis, develop ideas, address potential objections, employ effective transitions, identify a clear
Use software (e.g., Photoshop, Acrobat, Dreamweaver, Pagemaker) to incorporate both basic and specialized effects into writing.
Determine how and when to employ technology effectively in written communication.