Academic Standard

Tennessee Diploma Project
English Language Arts
Grade range: 
9 to 12
Research is the dynamic, attentive, and systematic process of inquiry to discover, interpret, or rework facts, events, behaviors, or theories. Additionally, it makes practical applications with the help of facts, laws, or theories. The term research is also used to describe the collection of information about a particular subject.Conceptual StrandEffective research is the ability to frame, to analyze, and to investigate solutions to problems, while building on and evaluating the credibility of existing research. Effective research leads to the formulation of questions and ultimately to the exploration of new ideas.Guiding QuestionHow does effective research enhance inquiry about any aspect of life?
Elements within this Standard
Course Level Expectation
Define and narrow a problem or research topic.
Gather relevant information from a variety of print and electronic sources, as well as from direct observation, interviews, and surveys.
Make distinctions about the credibility, reliability, consistency, strengths, and limitations of resources, including information gathered from websites.
Write an extended research paper, using primary and secondary sources and technology and graphics, as appropriate.
Use a standard format to arrange text, to cite sources correctly, and to document quotations, paraphrases, and other information.
Check For Understanding
Narrow an increasingly complex topic so that the research process is manageable and a clear research question is identified.
Take and organize notes on information relevant to the topic and identify areas for research.
Consider both implicit and explicit information relevant to the topic.
Use relevant data to support the research topic.
Reference relevant primary, secondary, and tertiary sources, demonstrating a systematic search by including resources that are written by authorities in the
Evaluate resources for their credibility, reliability, strengths, and limitations, using criteria appropriate to the discipline.
Collect evidence in varied ways to answer the research question.
Summarize, paraphrase, and report research information supporting or refuting the thesis, as appropriate.
Craft an introductory section in which a research topic is stated, point of view is stated or implied, terms are defined, and a research context is provided.
Maintain coherence through the consistent use of transitions.
Create an effective organizing structure based on increasingly complex research information, sometimes using multiple organizing structures within the essay.
Craft a conclusion in which the research question and topic are re-emphasized, the main findings are summarized, and conclusions are drawn.
Acknowledge source material and create a bibliography, following a standard format and with a high degree of accuracy.
Cite sources using a standard format (e.g., MLA, APA), with a high degree of accuracy.
Appropriately quote, paraphrase, or summarize text, ideas, or other information taken from print or electronic sources.
Support a research topic by following a standard format and using appropriate technology to embed text graphics, including a title, numbered pages, and a
State Performance Indicator
Select the research topic with the highest degree of focus.
Differentiate between primary and secondary sources.
Evaluate the reliability and credibility of sources for use in research.
Evaluate the validity of Web pages as sources of information.
Determine which statement presents an opposing view from those stated on a Web page.
Identify information that must be cited or attributed within a writing sample.