Academic Standard

Tennessee Diploma Project
English Language Arts
Grade range: 
9 to 12
From Guide To Inductive & Deductive Reasoning Induction vs. Deduction October, 2008, by The Critical Thinking Co.™ Staff Logic refers to the systematic study and application of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is the skill of correct thinking and conceptual development. It is the thinking through of similarities, comparisons, and differences in order to induce the correct general conclusions. Studying logic and practicing logical thinking prepares students for the development of reasoning. Logic is often divided into two parts: inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The first is associated with drawing general conclusions from specific examples; the second involves drawing logical conclusions from definitions and axioms.Conceptual StrandLogic is the ability to reason soundly, to think critically, to argue persuasively, and to infer appropriately in order to function successfully in society. Guiding QuestionHow is the ability to reason soundly, to think critically, to argue persuasively, and to infer appropriately necessary to function successfully in school and the workplace?
Elements within this Standard
Course Level Expectation
Use logic to make inferences and draw conclusions in a variety of challenging oral and written contexts.
Analyze text for fact and opinion, cause/effect, inferences, evidence, and conclusions.
Evaluate an argument, considering false premises, logical fallacies, and the quality of evidence presented.
Analyze the logical features of an argument
Analyze written and oral communication for persuasive devices.
Analyze deductive and inductive arguments.
Check For Understanding
Construct and complete challenging word analogies.
Analyze text for stated or implied cause/effect relationships.
Describe the structure of a multifaceted argument with a stated main claim or conclusion and explicit or implicit premises.
Identify the elements of deductive and inductive arguments.
Identify the roles premises play in developing deductive and inductive arguments.
Evaluate the relevance and quality of evidence given to support or oppose an argument.
Identify established methods (e.g., scientific, historical) used to distinguish between factual claims and opinions.
Distinguish between evidence which is directly stated and evidence which is implied.
Identify false statements and explain how they are used in certain kinds of persuasive arguments.
Explain why common logical fallacies (e.g., the appeal to fear, personal attack {ad hominem}, false dilemma, false analogy) do not prove the point being argued.
Identify and analyze persuasive devices that are used in written and oral communication (e.g., bandwagon, loaded words, testimonial, name-calling, plain folks,
Identify and analyze similarities and differences in evidence, premises, and conclusions between two or more arguments on the same topic.
Evaluate the function of verbal techniques such as ambiguity and paradox in constructing an argument.
State Performance Indicator
Make inferences and draw conclusions based on evidence in text.
Choose a logical word to complete an analogy.
Evaluate text for fact and opinion.
Analyze cause/effect relationships in text.
Select the persuasive device (i.e., bandwagon, loaded words, testimonial, name calling, plain folks, snob appeal, misuse of statistics).
Identify and analyze the logical fallacy (i.e., appeal to fear, personal attack {ad hominem}, false dilemma, false analogy) within a given argument.
Differentiate between the stated and implied evidence of a given argument.
Determine whether a given argument employs deductive or inductive reasoning.
Identify a statement that reveals the writers biases, stereotypes, assumptions, or values within a writing sample.
Identify a false premise in text.
Distinguish the strongest or weakest point of an argument within a passage.