Academic Standard

Tennessee Diploma Project
English Language Arts
Grade range: 
9 to 12
From Guide To Inductive & Deductive Reasoning Induction vs. Deduction October, 2008, by The Critical Thinking Co.™ Staff Logic refers to the systematic study and application of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is the skill of correct thinking and conceptual development. It is the thinking through of similarities, comparisons, and differences in order to induce the correct general conclusions. Studying logic and practicing logical thinking prepares students for the development of reasoning. Logic is often divided into two parts: inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The first is associated with drawing general conclusions from specific examples; the second involves drawing logical conclusions from definitions and axioms.Conceptual StrandLogic is the ability to reason soundly, to think critically, to argue persuasively, and to infer appropriately in order to function successfully in society. Guiding QuestionHow is the ability to reason soundly, to think critically, to argue persuasively, and to infer appropriately necessary to function successfully in school and the workplace?
Elements within this Standard
Course Level Expectation
Use logic to make inferences and draw conclusions in a variety of complex oral and written contexts.
Analyze text for fact and opinion, cause/effect, inferences, evidence, and conclusions.
Evaluate an argument, considering false premises, logical fallacies, and quality of evidence presented.
Analyze the logical features of an argument.
Analyze written and oral communication for persuasive devices.
Analyze deductive and inductive arguments.
Check For Understanding
Construct and complete challenging word analogies.
Analyze text for stated or implied cause/effect relationships.
Describe the structure of a multi-faceted argument with an unstated main claim and explicit or implicit premises.
Evaluate the relevance, quality, and sufficiency of evidence used to support or oppose an argument.
Identify established methods (e.g., scientific, historical) used to distinguish between factual claims and opinions.
Distinguish between evidence which is directly stated and evidence which is implied within an argument.
Identify false premises and explain the role they play in argumentation.
Analyze common logical fallacies (e.g., appeal to fear, personal attack {ad hominem}, false dilemma, false analogy, slippery slope, non sequitur, false
Differentiate among evidence, inferences, assumptions, and claims in argumentation (e.g., explain and evaluate opinion editorials, commercials, political
Analyze and explain how a variety of logical arguments reach different and possibly conflicting conclusions on the same topic.
Identify and analyze persuasive devices that are used in written and oral communication (e.g., bandwagon, loaded words, testimonial, name-calling, plain folks,