Academic standards progression

Cornerstone:

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
 

Grade(s)
Code
Standard Text
 
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on Kindergarten conversations, reading, and content.
  1. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately.
  2. Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.
 
With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Sort common objects into categories to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  2. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites.
  3. Make real-life connections between words and their use.
  4. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action.
 
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.
 
 
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word.
  3. Identify frequently occurring root words and their inflectional forms.
 
With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Sort words into categories to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
  2. Define words by category and by one or more key attributes.
  3. Identify real-life connections between words and their use.
  4. Distinguish shades of meaning among words by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings.
 
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships.
 
 
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word.
  3. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root.
  4. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words.
  5. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.
 
Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Identify real-life connections between words and their use.
  2. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related words.
 
Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe.
 
 
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word.
  3. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root.
  4. Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
 
Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context.
  2. Identify real-life connections between words and their use.
  3. Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty.
 
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate conversational, general academic, and domain specific words and phrases, including those that signal spatial and time relationships.
 
 
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word.
  3. Consult reference materials, both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
 
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors in context.
  2. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms and proverbs.
  3. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites and to words with similar but not identical meanings
 
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being and that are basic to a particular topic.
 
 
Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
  1. Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
  2. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word.
  3. Consult reference materials, both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
  1. Interpret figurative language, including similes and metaphors, in context.
  2. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms and proverbs.
  3. Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
 
Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships.