Academic standards list

English/Language Arts - Grade 4 — English Language Arts


Academic standards define the expectations for knowledge and skills that students are to learn in a subject by a certain age or at the end of a school grade level. This page contains a list of standards for a specific content area, grade level, and/or course. The list of standards may be structured using categories and sub-categories.


Standard 1 — Language
Language is the systematic means of communicating ideas and feelings through the use of signs, gestures, words, and/or auditory symbols. Language Arts is the name given to the curriculum area that includes four types of language: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Language Arts teaching constitutes a significant area in education, since listening, speaking, reading, and writing pervade the curriculum. They are vital to learning and the display of learning in all areas- math, science, and social studies. Teachers must teach students to be proficient in all four areas of language to be successful in their learning across the curriculum.Conceptual StrandStandard American English conventions and vocabulary are essential to ensure effective use of language and promote success in college as well as all types of career opportunities.Guiding QuestionIn what ways do Standard American English conventions and vocabulary promote success in education and in careers?
Grade Level Expectation
Demonstrate knowledge of Standard English usage, mechanics, and spelling.
Demonstrate knowledge of strategies and resources to determine the definition, pronunciation, and usage of words and phrases.
Demonstrate knowledge of Standard English sentence structure.
State Performance Indicator
Identify the correct use of nouns (i.e., common and proper, plurals, possessives) and pronouns (i.e., subject, object, and agreement) within context.
Identify the correct use of verbs (i.e., agreement, tenses, action and linking) within context.
Identify the correct use of adjectives (i.e., comparison forms and articles) and adverbs (i.e., comparison forms and negatives) within context.
Identify declarative, interrogative, and exclamatory sentences by recognizing appropriate end marks.
Select the best way to correct incomplete sentences within context.
Identify the correct use of commas (i.e., series, dates, addresses, friendly letters, introductory words, compound sentences) within context.
Recognize usage errors occurring within context (i.e., double negatives, troublesome words: to/too/two, their/there/theyre, its/its).
Identify correctly or incorrectly spelled words in context.
Choose the correct formation of plurals, contractions, and possessives within context.
Choose the correct use of quotation marks and commas in direct quotations.
Identify sentences with correct subject-verb agreement (person and number).
Select appropriate antonyms, synonyms, and homonyms within context.
Recognize and use grade appropriate vocabulary within context.
Use prefixes, suffixes, and root words as aids in determining meaning within context.
Identify grade level compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations within context.
Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words using context clues, dictionaries, and glossaries.


Standard 2 — Communication
Communication is the practice of conveying information from one person to another. The language arts are all essential to the communication process. Listening and speaking are fundamental to oral communication. Reading and writing are vital to written communication; viewing and visually representing are critical to visual communication. Listening, reading, and viewing are ways to receive information. Speaking, writing, and visually representing are ways of sharing information.Conceptual StrandEffective communication through clear and persuasive expression and attentive listening is necessary for success in school, the workplace, and the larger community. Guiding QuestionHow do good listening and speaking skills help to communicate clearly and persuasively in all interactive settings?
Grade Level Expectation
Continue to develop oral language skills necessary for communication.
Continue to develop listening skills necessary for communication.
State Performance Indicator
Identify the main idea and supporting points of a speech.
Given a list of interactive behaviors (i.e., taking turns, behaving courteously, not interrupting, listening, remaining on task), identify those that are
Select the best summary of a speech.


Standard 3 — Writing
Writing is a way of sharing language in a visual or tactile form. Throughout the world writing systems have been developed independently using a variety of symbols to represent speech, punctuation, and numbers. All of the writing systems utilize visible representations except the Braille system used for the visually impaired. Writing is one of the most commanding communication tools.Conceptual StrandThe ability to write clearly and coherently to a specific topic is vital to effective communication. Authors write for a variety of purposes and to a variety of audiences.Guiding QuestionIn what ways does good writing contribute to effective communication in a variety of purposes and to a variety of audiences?
Grade Level Expectation
Write for a variety of purposes and to a variety of audiences.
Write in a variety of modes and genres (e.g., narration, description, personal expression, imaginative writing, response to literature, response to subject
Know and apply the steps of the writing process: prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, evaluating, and publishing.
State Performance Indicator
Identify the purpose for writing (i.e., to entertain, to inform, to share experiences).
Identify the audience for which a text is written.
Choose a topic sentence for a paragraph.
Select details that support a topic sentence.
Rearrange sentences to form a sequential, coherent paragraph.
Choose the supporting sentence that best fits the context and flow of ideas in a paragraph.
Identify sentences irrelevant to a paragraphs theme or flow.
Select appropriate time-order or transitional words to enhance the flow of a writing sample.
Select an appropriate title that reflects the topic of a written selection.
Complete a graphic organizer (i.e., clustering, listing, mapping, webbing) to group ideas for writing.


Standard 4 — Research
Research is the dynamic, attentive, and systematic process of inquiry to discover, interpret, or rework facts, events, behaviors, or theories. Additionally, it makes practical applications with the help of facts, laws, or theories. The term research is also used to describe the collection of information about a particular subject.Conceptual StrandEffective research is the ability to frame, to analyze, and to investigate solutions to problems, while building on and evaluating the credibility of existing research. Effective research leads to the formulation of questions and ultimately to the exploration of new ideas.Guiding QuestionHow does effective research enhance inquiry about any aspect of life?
Grade Level Expectation
Conduct research to access and present information.
Collect, organize, and determine the reliability of researched information.
Present research results in a written report.
State Performance Indicator
Select appropriate sources from which to gather information on a given topic.
Rank the reliability of sources on a given topic.
Complete a graphic organizer (e.g., chart, web) organizing material collected from text or technological sources.
Differentiate among the kinds of information available in a variety of reference materials (i.e., dictionary, thesaurus, atlas, encyclopedia).


Standard 5 — Logic
From Guide To Inductive & Deductive Reasoning Induction vs. Deduction October, 2008, by The Critical Thinking Co.™ Staff Logic refers to the systematic study and application of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is the skill of correct thinking and conceptual development. It is the thinking through of similarities, comparisons, and differences in order to induce the correct general conclusions. Studying logic and practicing logical thinking prepares students for the development of reasoning. Logic is often divided into two parts: inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The first is associated with drawing general conclusions from specific examples; the second involves drawing logical conclusions from definitions and axioms.Conceptual StrandLogic is the ability to reason soundly, to think critically, to argue persuasively, and to infer appropriately in order to function successfully in society. Guiding QuestionHow is the ability to reason soundly, to think critically, to argue persuasively, and to infer appropriately necessary to function successfully in school and the workplace?
Grade Level Expectation
Continue to develop logic skills to facilitate learning and to enhance thoughtful reasoning.
Use logic to make inferences and draw conclusions in a variety of oral and written contexts.
Apply logic skills to classroom situations and to selections read.
State Performance Indicator
Locate information to support opinions, predictions, and conclusions.
Recognize cause/effect relationships within context.
Distinguish between fact/opinion and reality/fantasy.
Choose a logical word to complete an analogy using synonyms and antonyms.
Make inferences and draw appropriate conclusions from text.
Indicate the sequence of events in text.

Informational Text

Standard 6 — Informational Text
In the Information Age the importance of being able to read and write informational texts critically and well cannot be overstated. Informational literacy is central to success, and even survival, in schooling, the workplace, and the community. - Nell Duke, Michigan State University Informational text is designed to convey factual information rather than tell or advance a narrative. Informational texts contain ideas, facts, and principles related to the physical, biological, or social world. They may take many different forms: picture books, photo essays, chapter books, articles and essays, letters, diaries and journals, observational notes, factual references (almanacs, books of statistics, books of world records), brochures, manuals, and text books. Informational text may employ techniques such as lists, comparing/contrasting, or demonstrating cause/effect, and may be accompanied by graphs or charts.Conceptual StrandThe world is filled with a variety of informational texts; learners must have a comprehensive set of skills for effective interpretation of this type of text.Guiding QuestionWhy is it important for learners to have a comprehensive set of skills for interpreting a variety of texts?
Grade Level Expectation
Apply skills and strategies to comprehend informational texts.
Recognize the different text features of informational texts (e.g., separate text boxes, diagrams, captions, charts, graphs).
State Performance Indicator
Select questions used to focus and clarify thinking before, during, and after reading text.
Identify the stated main idea and supporting details in text.
Use table of contents, title page, and glossary to locate information.
Use headings, graphics, and captions to make meaning from text.
Interpret information using a chart, map, or timeline.
Use available text features (e.g., graphics and illustrations) to make meaning from text.
Arrange instructions in sequential order.


Standard 7 — Media
According the National Association for Media Literacy Education: The purpose of media literacy education is to help individuals of all ages develop the habits of inquiry and skills of expression that they need to be critical thinkers, effective communicators and active citizens in todays world. Media (or Cine) literacy is a repertoire of competences that enable people to analyze, evaluate, and create messages in a wide variety of media modes, genres, and forms. Education for media literacy often uses an inquiry-based pedagogic model that encourages people to ask questions about what they watch, hear, and read. Media literacy education provides tools to help people critically analyze messages, offers opportunities for learners to broaden their experience of media, and helps them develop creative skills in making their own media messages.Conceptual StrandAll students must understand, analyze and use multi-media technology in all facets of life to keep pace with society and ensure lifelong learning. Guiding QuestionHow can students understand, analyze and use multi-media technology to keep pace with society and ensure lifelong learning?
Grade Level Expectation
Recognize that media can be a source of information and entertainment.
Use media to publish and present information.
State Performance Indicator
Select the most appropriate and reliable media for accessing information, writing a report, or making a presentation.
Identify the main idea in a visual image.
Choose the most effective medium to enhance a short oral presentation (e.g., still pictures, model, diorama, PowerPoint, recording).
From a list of media, identify the medium that is available to you that was probably not available to previous generations.


Standard 8 — Literature
Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. Broadly speaking, "literature" is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works, but the term is most commonly used to refer to works of the creative imagination, including works of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction.Conceptual StrandStudents will become educated members of society by gaining knowledge of themselves and others through the study of literature, thus becoming critical readers and lifelong learners. Guiding QuestionHow does the knowledge gained through the study of literature enable students to become critical readers and lifelong learners?
Grade Level Expectation
Use active comprehension strategies to derive meaning while reading and check for understanding after reading.
Experience various literary genres, including fiction/nonfiction, poetry, drama, short stories, folk tales, and myths.
Know and understand the basic characteristics of the genres studied.
Recognize and understand basic literary terms (e.g., simile, metaphor, setting, point of view, alliteration, onomatopoeia).
State Performance Indicator
Recognize plot features of fairy tales, folk tales, fables, and myths.
Identify characters, setting, and plot in a passage.
Determine the problem in a story and recognize its solution.
Make appropriate predictions about text.
Identify the forms of text (e.g., poetry, drama, fiction, nonfiction).
Identify and interpret similes and metaphors.
Identify the authors purpose (e.g., to entertain, to inform, to persuade, to share feelings).
Recognize the sounds of language (i.e., alliteration, rhyme, and repetition).
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