Academic standards list

English II — English Language Arts


Academic standards define the expectations for knowledge and skills that students are to learn in a subject by a certain age or at the end of a school grade level. This page contains a list of standards for a specific content area, grade level, and/or course. The list of standards may be structured using categories and sub-categories.


Standard 1 — Language
Language is the systematic means of communicating ideas and feelings through the use of signs, gestures, words, and/or auditory symbols. Language Arts is the name given to the curriculum area that includes four types of language: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Language Arts teaching constitutes a significant area in education, since listening, speaking, reading, and writing pervade the curriculum. They are vital to learning and the display of learning in all areas- math, science, and social studies. Teachers must teach students to be proficient in all four areas of language to be successful in their learning across the curriculum.Conceptual StrandStandard American English conventions and vocabulary are essential to ensure effective use of language and promote success in college as well as all types of career opportunities.Guiding QuestionIn what ways do Standard American English conventions and vocabulary promote success in education and in careers?
Course Level Expectation
Demonstrate control of Standard English through grammar usage and mechanics (punctuation, capitalization, and spelling).
Employ a variety of strategies and resources to determine the definition, pronunciation, etymology, spelling, and usage of words and phrases
Understand and use a variety of sentence structures.
State Performance Indicator
Demonstrate an understanding of the eight parts of speech, including their troublesome aspects, such as how to form the past and past participle of irregular but
Identify the patterns of a given set of sentences (i.e., subject-verb, subjectaction verb-direct object, subject-action verb-indirect object-direct object,
Combine a set of simple sentences into a single compound or complex sentence.
Use sentence-combining techniques, effectively avoiding problematic comma splices, run-on sentences, and sentence fragments.
Use commas correctly with appositives and introductory words, phrases, or clauses.
Use commas to set off nonessential elements in a sentence.
Correct a run-on sentence by using a comma and coordinating conjunction, subordinate conjunction, or semicolon.
Recognize correct subject-verb agreement with intervening elements.
Recognize a shift in either verb tense or point of view within a writing sample.
Select correct pronoun usage in a sentence (e.g., with compound elements such as between you and me, or following than or as).
Select correct pronoun-antecedent agreement using collective nouns or indefinite pronouns.
Recognize the correct placement of end marks and other marks of punctuation with quotation marks used in dialogue.
Select the appropriate word from among frequently confused words (i.e., to/too/two, their/there/theyre, it/its, you/youre, whose/whos, which/that/who,
Use context clues and/or knowledge of roots, affixes, and cognates to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.
Proofread a written passage for errors in punctuation and/or capitalization and/or spelling.
Use a sample reference source to determine aspects of a given word (e.g., spelling, part of speech, definition, cognates, etymology, synonyms).
Identify commonly used foreign words and phrases (i.e., RSVP, dj vu, faux pas, du jour, bon voyage, alma mater, cum laude, femme fatale, esprit de corps,


Standard 2 — Communication
Communication is the practice of conveying information from one person to another. The language arts are all essential to the communication process. Listening and speaking are fundamental to oral communication. Reading and writing are vital to written communication; viewing and visually representing are critical to visual communication. Listening, reading, and viewing are ways to receive information. Speaking, writing, and visually representing are ways of sharing information.Conceptual StrandEffective communication through clear and persuasive expression and attentive listening is necessary for success in school, the workplace, and the larger community. Guiding QuestionHow do good listening and speaking skills help to communicate clearly and persuasively in all interactive settings?
Course Level Expectation
Demonstrate critical listening skills essential for comprehension, evaluation, problem solving, and task completion.
Summarize, paraphrase, and critique information presented orally by others.
Identify the thesis and main points of a challenging speech.
Analyze the style and structure of a challenging speech.
Understand strategies for expressing ideas clearly and effectively in a variety of oral contexts.
Deliver effective oral presentations.
Participate in work teams and group discussions.
State Performance Indicator
Identify the thesis and main points of a challenging speech.
Distinguish between a summary and a paraphrase.
Distinguish between a critique and a summary.
Discern the structure of a challenging speech (e.g., sequential, problem solution, comparison-contrast, cause-effect).
Identify rhetorical devices used in a challenging speech (i.e., rhetorical questions, parallelism and repetition, analogies, hyperbole, metaphors, and similes).
Determine the most effective methods of engaging an audience during an oral presentation (e.g., making eye contact, adjusting speaking rate).
Select the most appropriate strategies for participating productively in a team (e.g., gaining the floor in orderly, respectful ways and listen with civility to


Standard 3 — Writing
Writing is a way of sharing language in a visual or tactile form. Throughout the world writing systems have been developed independently using a variety of symbols to represent speech, punctuation, and numbers. All of the writing systems utilize visible representations except the Braille system used for the visually impaired. Writing is one of the most commanding communication tools.Conceptual StrandThe ability to write clearly and coherently to a specific topic is vital to effective communication. Authors write for a variety of purposes and to a variety of audiences.Guiding QuestionIn what ways does good writing contribute to effective communication in a variety of purposes and to a variety of audiences?
Course Level Expectation
Write in a variety of modes for different audiences and purposes.
Employ various prewriting strategies.
Organize ideas into an essay with a thesis statement in the introduction, wellconstructed paragraphs, a conclusion, and transition sentences that connect
Revise documents to develop or support ideas clearly, address potential objections, ensure effective transitions between paragraphs, and correct errors in logic.
State Performance Indicator
Proofread a passage for correct punctuation, mechanics, and usage.
Choose the most effective order of sentences in a paragraph.
Choose the transitional device that appropriately connects sentences or paragraphs within a writing sample.
Select a vivid word (e.g., adjective, adverb, verb) to strengthen a written description.
Demonstrate the ability to combine a set of simple sentences into a longer, more interesting sentence.
Determine the most effective placement of information using a prewriting graphic organizer.
Select the thesis statement in a writing sample or passage.
Evaluate the relevance of supporting sentences by deleting an irrelevant sentence in a passage.
Rearrange the order of supporting paragraphs within a writing sample given a specified organizational pattern (e.g., comparison-contrast, chronological).
Identify a statement that reveals the writers attitude.
Identify the targeted audience for a selected passage.
Identify the targeted audience for a selected passage.
Determine the writers purpose in a writing sample.
Identify sentences that use effective parallelism within a writing sample.
Select the proper format to convey a set of work-related information.
Select the most precise word to provide clarity appropriate to audience and purpose.
Identify the mode in which a writing sample is written.


Standard 4 — Research
Research is the dynamic, attentive, and systematic process of inquiry to discover, interpret, or rework facts, events, behaviors, or theories. Additionally, it makes practical applications with the help of facts, laws, or theories. The term research is also used to describe the collection of information about a particular subject.Conceptual StrandEffective research is the ability to frame, to analyze, and to investigate solutions to problems, while building on and evaluating the credibility of existing research. Effective research leads to the formulation of questions and ultimately to the exploration of new ideas.Guiding QuestionHow does effective research enhance inquiry about any aspect of life?
Course Level Expectation
Define and narrow a problem or research topic.
Gather relevant information from a variety of print and electronic sources, as well as from direct observation, interviews, and surveys.
Make distinctions about the credibility, reliability, consistency, strengths, and limitations of resources, including information gathered from websites.
Write an extended research paper, using primary and secondary sources and technology and graphics, as appropriate.
Use a standard format to arrange text, to cite sources correctly, and to document quotations, paraphrases, and other information.
State Performance Indicator
Select the research topic with the highest degree of focus.
Differentiate between primary and secondary sources.
Evaluate the reliability and credibility of sources for use in research.
Evaluate the validity of Web pages as sources of information.
Determine which statement presents an opposing view from those stated on a Web page.
Identify information that must be cited or attributed within a writing sample.


Standard 5 — Logic
From Guide To Inductive & Deductive Reasoning Induction vs. Deduction October, 2008, by The Critical Thinking Co.™ Staff Logic refers to the systematic study and application of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is the skill of correct thinking and conceptual development. It is the thinking through of similarities, comparisons, and differences in order to induce the correct general conclusions. Studying logic and practicing logical thinking prepares students for the development of reasoning. Logic is often divided into two parts: inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. The first is associated with drawing general conclusions from specific examples; the second involves drawing logical conclusions from definitions and axioms.Conceptual StrandLogic is the ability to reason soundly, to think critically, to argue persuasively, and to infer appropriately in order to function successfully in society. Guiding QuestionHow is the ability to reason soundly, to think critically, to argue persuasively, and to infer appropriately necessary to function successfully in school and the workplace?
Course Level Expectation
Use logic to make inferences and draw conclusions in a variety of challenging oral and written contexts.
Analyze text for fact and opinion, cause-effect, inferences, evidence, and conclusions.
Evaluate an argument, considering false premises, logical fallacies, and the quality of evidence presented.
Analyze the logical features of an argument.
Analyze written and oral communication for persuasive devices.
Analyze deductive and inductive arguments.
State Performance Indicator
Make inferences and draw conclusions based on evidence in text.
Choose a logical word to complete an analogy.
Evaluate text for fact and opinion.
Analyze cause/effect relationships in text.
Select the persuasive device (i.e., bandwagon, loaded words, testimonial, namecalling, plain folks, snob appeal, misuse of statistics, transfer).
Identify the logical fallacy (i.e., appeal to fear, personal attack {ad hominem}, false dilemma, false analogy, slippery slope, non sequitur, false authority)
Differentiate between the stated and implied evidence of a given argument.
Determine whether a given argument employs deductive or inductive reasoning.
Identify a statement that reveals the writers biases, stereotypes, assumptions, or values within a writing sample.
Identify a false premise in text.
Identify the main claim, premise(s), evidence, or conclusion of a given argument.
Select an additional sentence to add to an argument within a persuasive text.
Select a rebuttal statement that best refutes the writers viewpoint.
Distinguish the strongest or weakest point of a given argument.

Informational Text

Standard 6 — Informational Text
In the Information Age the importance of being able to read and write informational texts critically and well cannot be overstated. Informational literacy is central to success, and even survival, in schooling, the workplace, and the community. - Nell Duke, Michigan State University Informational text is designed to convey factual information rather than tell or advance a narrative. Informational texts contain ideas, facts, and principles related to the physical, biological, or social world. They may take many different forms: picture books, photo essays, chapter books, articles and essays, letters, diaries and journals, observational notes, factual references (almanacs, books of statistics, books of world records), brochures, manuals, and text books. Informational text may employ techniques such as lists, comparing/contrasting, or demonstrating cause/effect, and may be accompanied by graphs or charts.Conceptual StrandThe world is filled with a variety of informational texts; learners must have a comprehensive set of skills for effective interpretation of this type of text.Guiding QuestionWhy is it important for learners to have a comprehensive set of skills for interpreting a variety of texts?
Course Level Expectation
Comprehend and summarize the main ideas of informational and technical texts and determine the essential elements that elaborate them.
Analyze the organizational structures of informational and technical texts.
Read, interpret, and analyze graphics that support informational and technical texts.
State Performance Indicator
Discern the stated or implied main idea and supporting details of informational and technical passages
Use the graphics of informational and technical passages to answer questions.
Determine the appropriateness of a graphic used to support an informational or technical passage.
Identify the organizational structure of an informational or technical text (e.g., sequential, problem-solution, comparison-contrast, cause-effect).
Synthesize information across two or more informational or technical texts.


Standard 7 — Media
According the National Association for Media Literacy Education: The purpose of media literacy education is to help individuals of all ages develop the habits of inquiry and skills of expression that they need to be critical thinkers, effective communicators and active citizens in todays world. Media (or Cine) literacy is a repertoire of competences that enable people to analyze, evaluate, and create messages in a wide variety of media modes, genres, and forms. Education for media literacy often uses an inquiry-based pedagogic model that encourages people to ask questions about what they watch, hear, and read. Media literacy education provides tools to help people critically analyze messages, offers opportunities for learners to broaden their experience of media, and helps them develop creative skills in making their own media messages.Conceptual StrandAll students must understand, analyze and use multi-media technology in all facets of life to keep pace with society and ensure lifelong learning. Guiding QuestionHow can students understand, analyze and use multi-media technology to keep pace with society and ensure lifelong learning?
Course Level Expectation
Evaluate the aural, visual, and written images and other special effects used in television, radio, film, and the Internet for their ability to inform, persuade,
Examine the agreements and conflicts between the visual (e.g., media images, painting, film, graphic arts) and the verbal.
Recognize how visual and sound techniques or design (e.g., special effects, camera angles, music) carry or influence messages in various media.
Apply and adapt the principles of written composition to create coherent media productions.
State Performance Indicator
Draw an inference from a non-print medium.
Select the type of conflict represented in a non-print medium.
Choose a visual image that best reinforces a viewpoint.
Determine the impact of production elements (e.g., font, color, layout, graphics, light, camera angle) on a message.
Match a focused message to an appropriate medium.
Infer the mood represented in a non-print medium.
Consider the treatment of a particular subject or event in two or more media (e.g., newspaper and visual art, narrative and poem, diary and magazine article).


Standard 8 — Literature
Literature is a term used to describe written or spoken material. Broadly speaking, "literature" is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works, but the term is most commonly used to refer to works of the creative imagination, including works of poetry, drama, fiction, and nonfiction.Conceptual StrandStudents will become educated members of society by gaining knowledge of themselves and others through the study of literature, thus becoming critical readers and lifelong learners. Guiding QuestionHow does the knowledge gained through the study of literature enable students to become critical readers and lifelong learners?
Course Level Expectation
Demonstrate knowledge of significant works of world literature.
Understand the characteristics of various literary genres (e.g., poetry, novel, biography, short story, essay, drama).
Recognize the conventions of various literary genres and understand how these conventions articulate the writers vision.
Analyze works of literature for what is suggested about the historical period in which they were written.
Know and use appropriate literary terms to derive meaning from various literary genres.
State Performance Indicator
Identify examples of idiom, metaphor, simile, personification, hyperbole, or pun in poetry or prose.
Differentiate among verbal, situational, and dramatic irony.
Identify and analyze an authors point of view (i.e., first person, third-person objective, third-person limited, third-person omniscient).
Identify and analyze how the author reveals character (i.e., what the author tells us, what the other characters say about him or her, what the character does,
Determine the significance/meaning of a symbol in poetry or prose.
Differentiate between mood and tone in poetry or prose.
Determine the impact of setting on literary elements (i.e., plot, character, theme, tone).
Identify and analyze the common theme in a series of passages.
Demonstrate knowledge of sound and metric devices (i.e., rhyme {internal, slant}, rhythm, blank verse, free verse, repetition, alliteration, onomatopoeia).
Demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics of lyric poetry, epics, sonnets, dramatic poetry, and ballads.
Identify and analyze the elements of drama (i.e., stage directions, dialogue, soliloquy, monologue, aside).
Locate words or phrases in a passage that provide historical or cultural cues.
Identify and analyze standard literary elements (i.e., allegory, parable, paradox, parody, satire, foreshadowing, flashback).
Identify classical, historical, and literary allusions in context.
Identify and analyze basic elements of plot (i.e., exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution/denouement).
Analyze how form relates to meaning (e.g., compare a poem and a newspaper on the same theme or topic).
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