Academic standards list

Human Anatomy & Physiology — Science (2009-2018)


Academic standards define the expectations for knowledge and skills that students are to learn in a subject by a certain age or at the end of a school grade level. This page contains a list of standards for a specific content area, grade level, and/or course. The list of standards may be structured using categories and sub-categories.

Embedded Inquiry

Standard INQ — Embedded Inquiry
Science is a relentless quest for understanding how the natural world works. All of science is driven by the premise that the world is capable of being understood. Yet, scientists believe that currently accepted explanations of natural phenomena or events are never perfect or fully complete and are always amenable to revision in light of new scientific evidence. Each scientific discipline uses its distinctive tools and techniques to investigate phenomena associated with the physical, geological, or living worlds. All rely upon theories from which the development of hypotheses emerge, the collection of data, and the interpretation of evidence as the foundation for reaching logical conclusions and making reasoned predictions.Conceptual StrandUnderstandings about scientific inquiry and the ability to conduct inquiry are essential for living in the 21st century.Guiding QuestionWhat tools, skills, knowledge, and dispositions are needed to conduct scientific inquiry?
Course Level Expectation
Recognize that science is a progressive endeavor that reevaluates and extends what is already accepted.
Design and conduct scientific investigations to explore new phenomena, verify previous results, test how well a theory predicts, and compare opposing theories.
Use appropriate tools and technology to collect precise and accurate data.
Apply qualitative and quantitative measures to analyze data and draw conclusions that are free of bias.
Compare experimental evidence and conclusions with those drawn by others about the same testable question.
Communicate and defend scientific findings.

Embedded Technology/Engineering

Standard T/E — Embedded Technology/Engineering
Scientific inquiry is fueled by the desire to understand the natural world; technological design is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems. Technology exerts a more direct effect on society than science because it is focused on solving human problems, helping humans to adapt to changes, and fulfilling goals and aspirations. The engineering design cycle describes the worklives of practicing engineers. The design cycle describes a series of activities that includes a background research, problem identification, feasibility analysis, selection of design criteria, prototype development, planning and design, production and product evaluation. Because there are as many variations of this model, practicing engineers do not adhere to a rigid step-by-step interpretation of this design cycle.Conceptual StrandSociety benefits when engineers apply scientific discoveries to design materials and processes that develop into enabling technologies.Guiding QuestionHow do science concepts, engineering skills, and applications of technology improve the quality of life?
Course Level Expectation
Explore the impact of technology on social, political, and economic systems.
Differentiate among elements of the engineering design cycle: design constraints, model building, testing, evaluating, modifying, and retesting.
Explain the relationship between the properties of a material and the use of the material in the application of a technology.
Describe the dynamic interplay among science, technology, and engineering within living, earth-space, and physical systems.

Anatomical Orientation

Standard 1 — Anatomical Orientation
Conceptual StrandAnatomy and physiology investigates the interdependence of structure and function to form a living, integrated whole.Guiding QuestionHow is the body organized to function effectively and maintain homeostasis?
Course Level Expectation
Distinguish between anatomy and physiology.
Investigate the interrelationship between the structures and functions of the body systems.
Investigate the body cavities, the subdivisions of each cavity, and the organs within each area.
Use correct anatomical terminology when discussing body structures, sections, and regions.
Describe the body mechanisms that maintain homeostasis.

Protection, Support, Movement

Standard 2 — Protection, Support, Movement
Conceptual StrandThe integumentary, skeletal, and muscular systems work together to support, protect, and move body structures as well as maintain homeostasis.Guiding QuestionHow do body systems aid in support, protection, and movement as well as in maintaining homeostasis?
Course Level Expectation
Identify structures of the integumentary, skeletal, and muscular systems and show the relationship between these structures and their functions.
Investigate physiological mechanisms that allow the integumentary, skeletal, and muscular systems to function.

Integration & Regulation

Standard 3 — Integration & Regulation
Conceptual StrandThe nervous and endocrine systems work in an integrative manner to maintain homeostasis and communicate with all other body systems.Guiding QuestionWhat external and internal bodily mechanisms are involved in communication, control, growth, and development?
Course Level Expectation
Compare and contrast the anatomy and physiology of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Describe the structure, function, and developmental aspects of neurons and their supporting glial cells.
Investigate the physiology of electrochemical impulses and neural integration.
Investigate organs for perception of external stimuli and to the maintenance of homeostasis.
Identify the major organs of the endocrine system and the associated hormonal production and regulation.


Standard 4 — Transport
Conceptual StrandThe cardiovascular system transports materials pumped by the heart through blood vessels to all parts of the body. The lymphatic system bathes the body in extracellular fluid and works with the cardiovascular system to provide immunity and regulate fat metabolism.Guiding QuestionHow does the cardiovascular system transport substances that maintain homeostasis? What mechanisms are involved in staying healthy though the immune responses?
Course Level Expectation
Identify the molecular and cellular components of the blood and the functions of the blood.
Explore the anatomy of the heart and describe the pathway of blood through this organ.
Describe the biochemical and physiological nature of heart function.
Describe the relationship between the structure and function of different types of blood vessels.
Describe the physiological basis of circulation and blood pressure.
Identify the structures of the lymphatic system.
Describe the details of the immune response.

Absorption & Excretion

Standard 5 — Absorption & Excretion
Conceptual StrandThe digestive system takes in food and changes it to a usable form. The urinary system removes wastes and maintains osmotic balance.Guiding QuestionHow does the digestive system convert food into the raw materials that build and fuel the bodys cells? How does the urinary system maintain the homeostatic balance of internal fluids?
Course Level Expectation
Identify organs of the digestive and urinary systems and describe their functions.
Investigate mechanisms of digestion and food absorption.
Describe how nutrition, metabolism, and body temperature are related.
Explain how the kidneys function to remove wastes from the blood.

Reproduction, Growth, and Development

Standard 6 — Reproduction, Growth, and Development
Conceptual StrandThe reproductive system ensures the continuity of a species.Guiding QuestionHow do the organs and structures of the reproductive system function to produce successive generations of offspring?
Course Level Expectation
Identify the essential and accessory organs of the male and female reproductive systems and describe their functions.
Explain hormonal regulation during a typical 28 day menstrual cycle.
Summarize the principal events that occur during prenatal development.
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