Academic standards list

Scientific Research — Science (2009-2018)


Academic standards define the expectations for knowledge and skills that students are to learn in a subject by a certain age or at the end of a school grade level. This page contains a list of standards for a specific content area, grade level, and/or course. The list of standards may be structured using categories and sub-categories.

Embedded Technology/Engineering

Standard T/E — Embedded Technology/Engineering
Scientific inquiry is fueled by the desire to understand the natural world; technological design is driven by the need to meet human needs and solve human problems. Technology exerts a more direct effect on society than science because it is focused on solving human problems, helping humans to adapt to changes, and fulfilling goals and aspirations. The engineering design cycle describes the worklives of practicing engineers. The design cycle describes a series of activities that includes a background research, problem identification, feasibility analysis, selection of design criteria, prototype development, planning and design, production and product evaluation. Because there are as many variations of this model, practicing engineers do not adhere to a rigid step-by-step interpretation of this design cycle.Conceptual StrandSociety benefits when engineers apply scientific discoveries to design materials and processes that develop into enabling technologies.Guiding QuestionHow do science concepts, engineering skills, and applications of technology improve the quality of life?
Course Level Expectation
Explore the impact of technology on social, political, and economic systems.
Differentiate among elements of the engineering design cycle: design constraints, model building, testing, evaluating, modifying, and retesting.
Explain the relationship between the properties of a material and the use of the material in the application of a technology.
Describe the dynamic interplay among science, technology, and engineering within living, earth-space, and physical systems.

Practice Ethics

Standard 1 — Practice Ethics
Conceptual StrandEthical practices must be adhered to during scientific research.Guiding QuestionWhat are the ethical practices that must be addressed while conducting scientific research?
Course Level Expectation
Critically examine data to determine its significance.
Repeat trials to enhance the reliability of data.
Recognize that in science one solution often leads to new questions.
Employ ethical practices during research and investigations that involve human or animal subjects and hazardous materials.
Follow safety procedures in the classroom, laboratory, and home environments.
Respect and understand copyright and patent laws.

Think Critically

Standard 2 — Think Critically
Conceptual StrandCritical thinking skills are essential for identifying and solving scientific problems.Guiding QuestionWhat critical thinking skills are needed to answer researchable questions?
Course Level Expectation
Analyze and study classic scientific problems.
Use scientific instruments to extend the human senses in observation.
Recognize the limitations of scientific investigations.
Use technological tools and mathematical models to analyze problems or questions.
Evaluate safety implications and risks associated with answering a question.


Standard 3 — Investigate
Conceptual StrandInvestigative strategies are essential to answer a scientific question or solve a scientific problem.Guiding QuestionWhat strategies should be employed to solve a scientific problem or answer a scientific question?
Course Level Expectation
Formulate a working hypothesis to guide research.
Develop experimental procedures to test a hypothesis.
Practice appropriate safety procedures.
Collect data using a variety of scientific tools and equipment.
Verify data for accuracy.

Analyze and Evaluate Data

Standard 4 — Analyze and Evaluate Data
Conceptual StrandTo synthesize, analyze,, and evaluate data is a vital part of solving scientific problem solving.Guiding QuestionWhat problem solving skills are necessary to synthesize, analyze, and evaluate data in order to draw accurate conclusions?
Course Level Expectation
Use statistical analysis to accurately analyze and interpret data.
Evaluate data based in terms of its accuracy and precision.
Draw conclusions based on data analysis and evaluations.

Communicate Results

Standard 5 — Communicate Results
Conceptual StrandResults of scientific investigations should be shared in oral and written form to a variety of audiences.Guiding QuestionHow and with whom should the methods and results of scientific investigations be shared?
Course Level Expectation
Present a scientific report in a clear, accurate, and appropriate manner to an audience.
Communicate findings in order to extend the research base.
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